​What does a CNC lathe consist of?

2024-01-16

CNC lathe consists of CNC device, bed, spindle box, tool post feeding system, tailstock, hydraulic system, cooling system, lubrication system, chip conveyor and other parts.

Parallel dual spindle CNC lathe

CNC lathes are divided into two types: vertical CNC lathes and horizontal CNC lathes.

Vertical CNC lathes are used for turning disc parts with large rotation diameters.

Horizontal CNC lathes are used for turning parts with long axial dimensions or small disk parts.

Horizontal CNC lathes can be further divided into economical CNC lathes, ordinary CNC lathes and turning machining centers according to their functions.

Economical CNC lathe: A simple CNC lathe formed by modifying the turning feed system of ordinary lathes by using stepper motors and microcontrollers. The cost is low, the degree of automation and functions are relatively poor, and the turning accuracy is not high. It is suitable for turning of rotary parts with low requirements.

Ordinary CNC lathe: A CNC lathe that is specially designed in structure according to the requirements of turning processing and equipped with a universal CNC system. The CNC system has strong functions. The degree of automation and processing accuracy are also relatively high, and it is suitable for turning of general rotary parts. This CNC lathe can control two coordinate axes at the same time, namely the x-axis and the z-axis.

turning center

Turning machining center: Based on the ordinary CNC lathe, a C-axis and a power head are added. More advanced machine tools also have tool magazines that can control the three coordinate axes of X, Z and C. The linkage control axis can be (X, Z), (X, C) or (Z.C). Since the C-axis and milling power head are added to the tower, the processing capabilities of this CNC lathe are greatly enhanced. In addition to general turning, it can also perform radial and axial milling, curved surface milling, and holes whose centerline is not in the rotation center of the part. and drilling of radial holes.

Hydraulic chuck and hydraulic tailstock

Hydraulic chuck is an important accessory for clamping workpieces during CNC turning. For general rotary parts, ordinary hydraulic chucks can be used; for parts whose clamped parts are not cylindrical, you need

Use a special chuck; a spring chuck is required when directly processing parts from bar stock. For parts with a large ratio between axial size and radial size, it is necessary to use a movable top-tip installed on the hydraulic tailstock to support the tail end of the part. Only in this way can the parts be processed correctly. The tailstock includes ordinary hydraulic tailstock and programmable hydraulic tailstock.

CNC bearing lathe

Universal knife holder

CNC lathes can be equipped with two types of tool holders

National special tool holder: developed by the lathe manufacturer itself, and the tool holder used is also special. The advantage of this type of tool holder is low manufacturing cost, but lacks versatility.

②Universal tool holder: Tool holder produced according to certain general standards (such as VDI, German Engineers Association), CNC lathe manufacturers can select and configure according to the functional requirements of the CNC lathe.

Milling power head

Installing a milling power head on the tool holder of a CNC lathe can greatly expand the processing capacity of the CNC lathe. For example: using the milling power head for axial drilling and milling.

Tools for CNC lathes

When turning parts on a CNC lathe or turning machining center, the position of the tools on the tool holder should be reasonably and scientifically arranged according to the tool holder structure of the lathe and the number of tools that can be installed, and care should be taken to avoid the tool from being moved when the tool is stationary and working. Interference phenomena with machine tools, tools and workpieces, and between tools.

Machine tool composition

The host machine is the main body of the CNC machine tool, including the machine bed, column, spindle, feed mechanism and other mechanical components. It is a mechanical component used to complete various cutting processes.

CNC device is the core of CNC machine tools, including hardware (printed circuit board, CRT display, key box tape reader, etc.) and corresponding software. It is used to input digital part programs, and completes the storage of input information, data transformation, interpolation operations and the realization of various control functions.

The driving device is the driving component of the CNC machine tool actuator. Including spindle drive unit, feed unit, spindle motor and feed motor, etc. It realizes spindle and feed drive through electrical or electro-hydraulic servo system under the control of CNC device. When several feeds are linked, positioning, straight line, plane curve and space curve processing can be completed.

Auxiliary devices refer to some necessary supporting components of CNC machine tools to ensure the operation of CNC machine tools, such as cooling, chip removal, lubrication, lighting, monitoring, etc. It includes hydraulic and pneumatic chip removal devices, exchange worktables, CNC turntables and CNC dividing heads, as well as cutting tools and monitoring and detection devices.

Programming and other attached equipment can be used to program and store parts outside the machine.

Since the world's first CNC machine tool was developed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1952, CNC machine tools have been widely used in the manufacturing industry, especially in the automotive, aerospace, and military industries.

With widespread application, CNC technology has developed rapidly both in terms of hardware and software.